• flow of particles in thickener

    The Thickener Components It is very common to use a slurry velocity of about 2 m s to maintain the solid particles in suspension as they flow through pipes and launders so these measures are necessary in order to avoid internal currents that may otherwise interfere with the slow settling rate of the solids .

  • Improve Clarifier and Thickener Design and Operation

    Flow scheme for clarifiers and thickeners The feed flowrate (Q f ) and concentration (x f ) are normally design parameters. This leaves the designer or operator to determine the underflow pumping rate (Q u ) (sometimes called blowdown) required to achieve a desired underflow effluent concentration (x u ) .

  • Settling Rate - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    Since the surface area of the thickener is the main variable, the mass flow through the system is considered a flux (the product of concentration and velocity), such as tonnes solids/m 2 /day. Frequently the inverse of this flux is used, called ‘unit area’, m 2 /tonnes solids/ day. This allows system properties to be described in a general ...

  • How a Thickener Works

    Thickening or dewatering may be defined as the removal of a portion of the liquid from a pulp or slime made up of a mixture of finely divided solids and liquids. The early methods of thickening employed plain, flat-bottomed tanks into which the pulp was fed until the tank was full. The solids were then allowed to settle as long as required, the top liquid was decanted, the settled solids were ...

  • Sludge Thickening - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

    The thickeners must be preceded by flow balancing tanks to contain and mix intermittent sludge discharges and feed the thickeners at a consistent concentration and uniform rate (Fig. 13.1). In applications where used washwater (without settlement) is mixed with clarifier sludge, the sizing of the flow balancing tanks becomes critical because of ...

  • tailings disposal - Outotec

    Highly aerated thickener feed that makes its way into the body of the thickener tends to carry fine particles to the surface of the thickener to form froth. This froth causes issues such as the loss of product to thickener overflow (on product thickeners) and can cause reduction in thickener underflow density due to poor flocculation.

  • Flow-to-fracture transition and pattern formation in a ...

    Following ref. 15, here we define shear thickening regimes based on steady state flow curves obtained from rheology with Newtonian flow α = 1, CST α > 1, DST α > 2, and SJ α tends to infinity.

  • Five Reasons for Measuring Density in Thickening Processes ...

    WATER RECOVERY. In mineral processing operations, water is one of the most important assets.
  • Difference Between Clarifier and Thickener

    The Difference Between a Clarifier and a Thickener is subtle as they will visually look the same. Fundamentally, thickeners and clarifiers are both used to settle solids which results in the separation of liquids and solids. Thickeners are used to concentrate solids, while clarifiers are used to purify liquids. A thickener will give you a high density underflow while a clarifier will not. The ...

  • Five Reasons for Measuring Density in Thickening Processes ...

    Mar 10, 2020  The density value (or mass flow) can be used to improve the thickening efficiency. A density meter together with a flow meter in the underflow can help to check the productivity of the thickener, while solids can be detected real-time using a density or solids meter in the overflow.

  • SETTLING VELOCITY OF PARTICLES

    THICKENERS AND CLARIFIERS SETTLING OF FLOCCULATED PARTICLES •Fine particles form agglomerates entrapping water within •Flocculating agents –strong electrolytes, polymeric - polyacrylamide •Inexpensive water treatment materials lime alumina, sodium silicates, ferrous sulphate, ferric chloride etc. form loose agglomerates and removes

  • Thickener vs. Clarifier: What's the Difference? McLanahan

    Like clarifiers, Thickeners can use flocculants to clump smaller particles together, allowing them to settle faster than they would on their own without the use of the flocculating agent. A rake mechanism in the Thickener helps guide the settling solids to the center of the tank for discharge via centrifugal underflow pump.

  • tailings disposal - Outotec

    Highly aerated thickener feed that makes its way into the body of the thickener tends to carry fine particles to the surface of the thickener to form froth. This froth causes issues such as the loss of product to thickener overflow (on product thickeners) and can cause reduction in thickener underflow density due to poor flocculation.

  • Thickening - Resource Book

    Continuous thickening by an operation called sedimentation is the separation of suspended solid particles ... A thickener has several basic components: a tank to contain the slurry, feed piping and a ... The thickened solids flow and are raked to

  • Flow-to-fracture transition and pattern formation in a ...

    Following ref. 15, here we define shear thickening regimes based on steady state flow curves obtained from rheology with Newtonian flow α = 1, CST α > 1, DST α > 2, and SJ α tends to infinity.

  • Turbulence modulation in channel flow of finite-size ...

    The turbulence reduces with the aspect ratio of oblate particles, leading to drag reduction with respect to the single-phase flow for particles with aspect ratio ${\mathcal{A}}{\mathcal{R}}\leqslant 1/3$ , when the significant reduction in Reynolds shear stress is more than the compensation by the additional stresses, induced by the solid phase ...

  • New Associative Thickeners and Their Use In Waterborne and ...

    Sep 07, 2000  The structure built up between the PUR associative thickener and the emulsion particles is relatively resistant to mechanical effects, leading to a virtually Newtonian flow behavior. Figure 5 demonstrates the rheology profile of a PVC–dispersion paint, thickened with a PUR associative thickener (SER-AD FX 1010) and an HEC thickener.

  • High Rate Thickeners - Solid Liquid Separation

    The Thickener Components. ... It is very common to use a slurry velocity of about 2 m/s to maintain the solid particles in suspension as they flow through pipes and launders so these measures are necessary in order to avoid internal currents that may otherwise interfere with the slow settling rate of the solids.

  • Effect of Thickener Particle Geometry and Concentration on ...

    Jan 19, 2016  AFM measurements of the thickener microstructure, from which the dimensional properties of the thickener particles (fibers/platelets/spheres) were estimated, showed that the relative increase in the film thickness due to entrainment of the thickener was proportional to the ratio of thickener volume fraction to the size of the fibers/platelets ...

  • Shear thickening in colloidal dispersions: Physics Today ...

    The flow of particles suspended in an incompressible Newtonian fluid is a challenging fluid-mechanics problem that can be handled analytically for a single sphere and semianalytically for two spheres. For three or more particles, though, it requires a numerical solution to the Stokes equation—the Navier-Stokes equation without inertia

  • Sludge Thickening Concentration - Wastewater Treatment

    The design parameters of gravity thickeners for different types of sludges are listed in Table 7.2. Centrifuges are used both in thickening and dewatering of sludge. Centrifugal thickening involves the settling of particles in watery sludge under the influence of centrifugal forces. Application of centrifuges is limited to the sludge from ...

  • Mixing Thickeners 101 Processing Magazine

    The high shear and turbulent flow conditions usually needed to break up these agglomerations can potentially overshear the already hydrated particles. Prolonged intense mixing may in fact damage the polymers and lead to permanent viscosity loss or other undesired rheological properties.

  • Effect of Thickener Particle Geometry and Concentration on ...

    Jan 19, 2016  AFM measurements of the thickener microstructure, from which the dimensional properties of the thickener particles (fibers/platelets/spheres) were estimated, showed that the relative increase in the film thickness due to entrainment of the thickener was proportional to the ratio of thickener volume fraction to the size of the fibers/platelets ...

  • Shear thickening in colloidal dispersions: Physics Today ...

    The flow of particles suspended in an incompressible Newtonian fluid is a challenging fluid-mechanics problem that can be handled analytically for a single sphere and semianalytically for two spheres. For three or more particles, though, it requires a numerical solution to the Stokes equation—the Navier-Stokes equation without inertia

  • Sludge Thickening Concentration - Wastewater Treatment

    The design parameters of gravity thickeners for different types of sludges are listed in Table 7.2. Centrifuges are used both in thickening and dewatering of sludge. Centrifugal thickening involves the settling of particles in watery sludge under the influence of centrifugal forces. Application of centrifuges is limited to the sludge from ...

  • Mixing Thickeners 101 Processing Magazine

    The high shear and turbulent flow conditions usually needed to break up these agglomerations can potentially overshear the already hydrated particles. Prolonged intense mixing may in fact damage the polymers and lead to permanent viscosity loss or other undesired rheological properties.

  • (PDF) The role of ore properties in thickening process

    flocks, and therefo re the under flow concentration of pa ste thickeners w as reduced. This case was not observed in the middling sample (Fig. 5), and with the increasing of

  • The influence of particles on suspension rheology :: Anton ...

    Particles in a liquid act as obstacles, hindering the liquid’s flow and therefore increasing the flow resistance, i.e. the viscosity. A simple model to describe the increased viscosity is to assume a flow field around a single sphere, representing very low particle concentrations, and an increased resulting viscosity simply calculated from the viscosity of the solvent and the volume fraction ...

  • Wastewater Engineering

    A flow of 20 L / s of a mixed suspension of discrete particles of relative density ( specific gravity ) of 2.60 is to be settled in an ideal settlement tank having a surface area of 5.00 m 2 . Assuming NU = 1.00 x 10 - 6 m 2 / s, calculate the diameter of particles, 100 % of which will be settled. Also, determine the effect of halving the depth.

  • Design and development of a novel thickener feedwell using ...

    Thickeners are a key unit in many hydrometal-lurgical processing operations for the separation of solids and liquor. Flocculant is often added to bridge the particles into large, fast-settling aggregates with the aim of producing a clear liquor overflow and a ... thickener. The nature of the flow structure in the

  • Sedimentation (water treatment) - Wikipedia

    Basics. Suspended solids (or SS), is the mass of dry solids retained by a filter of a given porosity related to the volume of the water sample. This includes particles 10 μm and greater. Colloids are particles of a size between 1 nm (0.001 µm) and 1 µm depending on the method of quantification. Because of Brownian motion and electrostatic forces balancing the gravity, they are not likely to ...

  • Sludge Thickening - Sewage Treatment - Reverse Osmosis ...

    The upward moving particles form a sludge blanket on the surface of the flotation thickener. The primary variables for flotation thickening are: (1) Pressure, (2) recycle ratio, (3) feed solids concentration, (4) detention period, (5) air-to-solids ratio, (6) type and quality of sludge, (7) solids and hydraulic loading rates, and (8) use of ...

  • A GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING AND MIXING THICKENERS

    Thickeners come from both natural and synthetic sources. Naturally occurring ... and to expose as much surface area of the additive particles. To achieve this goal mechanically, the system is subject to high shear mixing conditions. Simply adding ... • Agitators are turned on and the speeds are adjusted to create the proper flow patterns and ...

  • Why cement tends to thicken - Phys.org

    Oct 01, 2013  Researchers at the ETH Zurich have unraveled the microscopic mechanism behind shear thickening: the increase in viscosity with speed observed for dense particle suspensions under flow

  • (PDF) Techniques and methodologies for improving thickener ...

    Thickeners can be a significant process bottle-neck due to the slow settling rate of the particles ... The equations governing consolidation in a continuous-flow gravity thickener are developed ...

  • Physics - Thickening Fluid Gets Even Thicker

    Jun 07, 2019  This attraction causes the particles to behave like grains of sand in a sandpile; a shear stress applied at one location has a long-distance effect as each particle pushes on its neighbors through the so-called contact network. This network leads to high viscosity and thus to an enhanced shear thickening effect.

  • Sludge Thickening - Sewage Treatment - Reverse Osmosis ...

    The upward moving particles form a sludge blanket on the surface of the flotation thickener. The primary variables for flotation thickening are: (1) Pressure, (2) recycle ratio, (3) feed solids concentration, (4) detention period, (5) air-to-solids ratio, (6) type and quality of sludge, (7) solids and hydraulic loading rates, and (8) use of ...

  • A GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING AND MIXING THICKENERS

    Thickeners come from both natural and synthetic sources. Naturally occurring ... and to expose as much surface area of the additive particles. To achieve this goal mechanically, the system is subject to high shear mixing conditions. Simply adding ... • Agitators are turned on and the speeds are adjusted to create the proper flow patterns and ...

  • Why cement tends to thicken - Phys.org

    Oct 01, 2013  Researchers at the ETH Zurich have unraveled the microscopic mechanism behind shear thickening: the increase in viscosity with speed observed for dense particle suspensions under flow

  • (PDF) Techniques and methodologies for improving thickener ...

    Thickeners can be a significant process bottle-neck due to the slow settling rate of the particles ... The equations governing consolidation in a continuous-flow gravity thickener are developed ...

  • Physics - Thickening Fluid Gets Even Thicker

    Jun 07, 2019  This attraction causes the particles to behave like grains of sand in a sandpile; a shear stress applied at one location has a long-distance effect as each particle pushes on its neighbors through the so-called contact network. This network leads to high viscosity and thus to an enhanced shear thickening effect.

  • Sedimentation (water treatment) - Wikipedia

    Basics. Suspended solids (or SS), is the mass of dry solids retained by a filter of a given porosity related to the volume of the water sample. This includes particles 10 μm and greater. Colloids are particles of a size between 1 nm (0.001 µm) and 1 µm depending on the method of quantification. Because of Brownian motion and electrostatic forces balancing the gravity, they are not likely to ...

  • flow of particles in thickener - guestroom-perroy.ch

    The Thickener Components It is very common to use a slurry velocity of about 2 m s to maintain the solid particles in suspension as they flow through pipes and launders so these measures are necessary in order to avoid internal currents that may otherwise interfere with the slow settling rate of the solids .

  • How Do I Thicken my Cosmetic Formula

    Adding thickeners: Adding thickeners may not be the only way to increase a formula's viscosity, but it is the way that you may want to achieve by adding a thickener. A more viscous system tends not to change as rapidly as a less viscous one. Instability is typically caused by movement Of particles or 1000000

  • International Journal for Applied Science • Personal Care ...

    THICKENERS or PEG-200 Hydrogenated Glyceryl Palmate. These two types of thickeners provide two important differences in perfor-mance: the flow behaviour and the tem-perature dependence of the viscosity. 1. Flow behaviour The hydrophobic thickeners provide a shearthinningflowbehaviour,thatmeans the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate.

  • EvenFlo™ Feedwell - WesTech Engineering, Inc.

    A thickener relies on a feedwell for even distribution of solids and flocculation of suspended particles. The feedwell receives the feedpipe flow and transitions it to a slow vertical downward flow, while flocculating the suspended solids into floccules that settle quickly.

  • Visual Encyclopedia of Chemical Engineering

    Thickeners and clarifiers use slowly rotating rake arms to separate solid particulate. A liquid feed with suspended solids is fed into a tank with a diameter of 5 to 500 feet. As the particles settle, angled rake arms move the concentrated slurry toward the center of the tank, where it is removed.

  • Dynamic Modelling and Analysis of Sedimentation ...

    Paste thickeners rely on a deeper sediment layer of compressible bed to augment the thickening capacity. As a result, a higher complexity is inherited in the process as the motion of each particle in the compression region is influenced by the presence of the others due to close proximity between particles.

  • Sedimentation Processes IWA Publishing

    The particles that settle out from the suspension become sediment, and in water treatment is known as sludge. When a thick layer of sediment continues to settle, this is known as consolidation. When consolidation of sediment, or sludge, is assisted by mechanical means then this is known as thickening.

  • Cip Plant Mining Thickener For Ores Low Consumption

    Mining Thickener For Mineral Processing Low Cost. Circulating pump extraction of gold of low grade high frequency mining process of copper surface or subsurface.the low flow rate mode delivers a low flow rate to the charge of ore 50 for maintaining agitation of the ore particles 50 in the channels 114 with the remainder of the particles substantially static but in contact with the.get price.